The leading western mass media - The Guardian, The Financial Times, The New York Times, Forbes – revealed the shocking results of the report by Triangle Centre on Terrorism and Homeland Security, which specializes in studying terrorism and national security.
According to the report, it turns out that Islamists present little threat to the US national security. In 2011 only 20 US Muslims were accused of terrorism. Out of 14 000 murders committed in the USA in 2011, none was committed by a terrorism suspect. The bottom line is that the US Islamophobic sentiments are groundless. At least this is what numerous journalists and political scientists say.
Meanwhile, Islamophobia has turned into a major concern in the USA. Muslims are more frequently treated as enemies.
According to Eugene Olkhovsky, Masterforex-V Academy’s leading expert, the notion was introduced by Etienne Dine in the1920s. it meant a negative attitude towards Islam and the Muslim culture.
In the 1990s this notion became widely used in and Europe. It was used to describe the negative attitude towards a wave of migration from Muslim countries and the immigrants’ reluctance to assimilate. After the 9/11 attack, the notion instantly migrated overseas, thus acquiring more general meaning: since then Islamophobia has been associated with terrorism and national security.
The situation in the USA is far more complicated and controversial than in Europe. There are many differences:
1. The USA was created by emigrants. That is why American citizens cannot condemn other emigrants who want to become Americans, whatever religion they practice.
2.Dissidents (i.e. representatives of persecuted religious confessions) took shelter in the USA and contributed much to the country’s development.
3.Territorial, ethnic and religious communities play a huge role in the USA, like in other federative states.
4.Historically, Americans have other negative stereotypes concerning other nations, ethnic unities and races. Moreover, the Muslim community in the USA is relatively scanty in comparison with Europe.
1.The USA’s melting pot, unlike Europe’s multiculturalism, is aimed at creating a single American nation with similar language, culture, values and history.
2.The US emigration laws are tough. It is much easier to deport a “persona non-grata” from the country.
3.The Protestant Church is very strong in the US. It is not so peaceful and tolerant towards other religions (It is not accidental that American Protestant pastors burn the Koran in public).
4.US citizens are very sensitive about their own and national security.
Europe is considered the cradle and stronghold of Christianity. In the past Europe had many confrontations with Muslim countries. It is sufficient to mention the Reconquista and numerous crusades.
Xenophobia was a common attribute of the Old World. It was indirectly supported by Catholic Church and a number of European philosophers. Eventually it gave birth to Nazism, which (as we know) resulted in the world’s most terrible and devastating war of all times – World War II. Europeans have never looked tolerant towards Muslim emigrants. The situation changed after WWII, when Europe was devastated and lacked labor power. Therefore, they had to encourage emigration.
In the 1960s European colonies received independence. Their population got the privileged right to receive residence permits in Europe. It was done in order to preserve the economic and political ties. As a result, thousands of Algerians and Tunisians came to France, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis came to the UK, Somalis and Libyans migrated to Italy, Moroccan started migrating to Spain . The family reunion law allowed any European citizen who was born by emigrants to invite all his relatives for permanent residence.
And finally, Europe is much closer to the Muslim World than the USA.
Today there are over 15 million Muslims living in the EU: The Netherlands – 10%, France – 6-7%, Germany and Switzerland – 5%, Great Britain – 3%. However, if to consider the age factor, for example, in Germany Muslim children account for 22% of Germany’s population under 15 years. It means that almost each 4th child in German schools is a Muslim.
It should be noted that Europeans blame Muslim emigrants for sponging and neglecting local traditions and culture. Emigrants and their offsprings seem to face discrimination when trying to apply for a job or to continue their education. For example, the rate of unemployment among UK emigrants is 20% (vs 6% around the UK). It is 21% in Germany (vs 8%) and 22% in France (vs 13%). Over 75% of German Muslims do not continue education after finishing school.
Islamophobia: Cui Prodest?
1.Political elite. They want to distract people for burning problems (poor economic performance, inflation, unemployment etc).
2.National parties and movements. They get an opportunity to use Islamophobia to consolidate their position in the political arena.
3.External powers. It is beneficial for the USA to encourage Islamophobia throughout the world – in Europe, China, Russia and other powers – because in this case they will support (or at least won’t oppose) its military campaigns in the Middle East. For China, it is about the Uigurian separatists. For Russia, it is about the Northern Caucasus. And finally, it is vital for Israel as. Jews have always confronted the Muslim World. Now the USA and Europe are its major allies in the Middle East.
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